In the USA, the process of joining the Church is called RCIA or Rite of
Christian Initiation for Adults. MOST of the time it is a 9 month process
that ends on Easter Sunday.
In general this is true but if you are already baptized, and especially
if you are well-educated in the Catholic faith, you may be able to persuade
the pastor to give you one-on-one instruction and admit you early. Ask
around. (Also note that Christians do not technically have to go through
RCIA. Often, candidates [as they are called, as
opposed to catechumens who are unbaptized] are sent to the same classes,
but it's a mistake to put a baptized person into the RCIA program. [The
program involves rituals and other things in addition to classes.]) Also
read and study the
Catechism (cover-to-cover, if you can), which will show
your earnestness to learn.
Another catechism that is good for someone
from a Protestant (particularly an Evangelical/Fundamentalist perspective)
of the Faith: A Catholic Catechism by Alan Schreck. It does have
one error in it which you should be aware of; it speaks of the Catholic
Church as being part of the Church of Christ, whereas in fact we believe
it is the Church of Christ (this is predicated on the translation of
the Latin word subsistere),
but other than that, it's an excellent resource.
While these are not
teaching aids per se, you may enjoy and get benefit from conversion stories
such as Rome
Sweet Home by Scott Hahn and Surprised
by Truth, Surprised
by Truth 2 — and
3 edited by Patrick Madrid.
If you want common questions
answered (particularly hostile questions), check out the Essential
Catholic Survival Guide from Catholic Answers. This is a collection
of all their tracts (which you can preview on their web site) and has
a lot of good explanation of Catholic teaching, although it is a bit
biased toward beliefs that Protestants challenge us on (rather than,
say, the foundation of the faith).